Section 4 : Charging Section
Income Chargeable at rates prescribed by Finance Act provided it comes within Scope of Total Income under Section 5 and it is not exempt under Section 10.
Section 5 : Scope of Total Income
Incidence of Tax depends upon a person's Residential Status and also upon the Place and Time of Accrual or Receipt of Income.
Section 6 : Residential Status
Under this option, NRI can offer income from Specified Assets at Special rates of taxation and all other income under normal provisions of Income-tax Act, 1961.
Treated as a separate block of Income chargeable to tax at special rates.
The NRI is neither entitled to claim:
All income other than income from specified assets is to be offered for taxation, as per the prevailing slab rates.
Here, the NRI will have to declare interest, capital gains, rental income and any other income and claim deductions for expenditure, allowance, set-off of losses suffered in previous years and also basic exemption of Rs. 2,00,000 for F.Y. 2013-14.
The total tax liability shall consist of tax under (I) and (II) put together.
If an Individual who satisfies both the understated conditions of section 6 of the Income-tax Act, then he becomes a Non-Resident.
The requirement of stay in India for 60 days as required in condition 2 is extended to 182 days to be considered as a Resident in India, in the following cases:
In other words, the above categorized persons are non-resident if they satisfy condition 1 alone.
A Non Resident who has returned to India for good is covered under the provisions of section 6(6) of the Income-tax Act. He is given a special status of RESIDENT BUT NOT ORDINARILY RESIDENT (RNOR) if he satisfies any one of the following conditions:
Note: A person who is returning to India after 9 years of stay outside India (and who was non-resident for each of the 9 years under the Income Tax Act, 1961), shall remain RNOR for the period of two years only.
Taxable period is the termed as Previous Year i.e. the period starting from 1st April to 31st March wherein the income has actually been earned by the person. Number of days stay in India during this period is to be counted.
Day of Arrival into India and the Day of Departure from India are counted as 1 day each in India (i.e. 2 days stay in India). Dates stamped on Passport are normally considered as proof of departure from and arrival in India. The stay in India is to be counted on the basis of physical stay of a person.
In the 1st year of leaving India for Employment, one shall leave before September 28th so that the person is a NRI for the said FY. Otherwise his total income (including foreign income) in the year of leaving India, is taxable in India.
An NRI, returning to India for good, should generally try and come back on or after February 1 (or February 2 in case of a leap year) so as to maintain his residential status of NRI. However, if your stay in India in prior 4 previous years does not exceed 365 days then one may return after 2nd October (or October 3rd in case of a leap year).
In both the cases, you will remain non-resident for that financial year (i.e. April-March) ensuring your income earned outside India is non-taxable in India for that financial year.
Interest on NRO FD is subject to a tax deduction at source at the rate of 30.90% if DTAA benefit is not allowed. There are different beneficial lower rate of tax on Interest prescribed for different countries which usually ranges from 10% to 15%.
As per Finance Act 2013, a Person shall not be entitled to claim any benefit of relief under DTAA unless he furnishes a Tax Residency Certificate (TRC) to Deductor. Further, the Act also specifies that along with TRC, a Person has to produce other documents and information as prescribed by Central Government to avail the benefit of DTAA (e.g. Declaration in Form NO.10F).
The following Incomes of Non Residents are exempt from tax under the provisions of the Income-tax Act:
The exemption, in respect of RFC account, continues till such time as the account holder continues to be RNOR.
Taxability of wealth, as per Section 6 of the Wealth Tax Act, 1957 is based on one s Residential Status and citizenship in India.
A Person of Indian Origin (or a citizen of India) who was ordinarily residing in a foreign country and who, on leaving such country, has returned to India with the intention of permanently residing in India then, the following assets shall be exempt for 2 successive assessment years commencing with the assessment year next following the date on which such person returned to India:
Taxability in India of Income for a person is based on the Residential Status of a person as per Income-tax Act, 1961 explained here under: The following Incomes of Non Residents are exempt from tax under the provisions of the Income-tax Act
A person who is a non-resident
A person who is resident but not-ordinarily resident (RNOR)
A person, who is resident and ordinarily resident in India (ROR), is liable to pay tax in India on his world income.
NRIs are liable to file Return of Income only if their taxable income* in India in the relevant Financial Year (1st April to 31st March) exceeds the basic exemption limit (Rs. 200,000/- for F.Y. 2013-14)
*NRIs earning below mentioned income shall be liable to file returns in India, irrespective of their Total Income being less than the Basic Exemption limit:
It shall not be necessary for a Non-Resident Indian to furnish a return of income if
Hence, if an NRI has only Investment Income or Long Term Capital Gains or both (only from foreign exchange assets, as explained above) and the tax has also been deducted at source from such income, then he is not required to file his Return of income for that relevant Financial Year.
It is however recommendatory for NRIs to file their Return of Income in India as the tax deduction at source for NRI is prescribed at maximum rate as per Income-tax Act. However, the actual liability to tax for the year computed in accordance with the provisions of the Act is generally lower.
The profit on sale of Immovable property is taxed under the Income-tax Act 1961 as under
The capital gains are segregated into long-term capital gains and short- term capital gains in following manner:
* Plus applicable "Education Cess" (2%) tax and "Secondary and Higher Education Cess (1%).
Capital Gains is to be calculated in the following manner
NRIs are entitled to claim exemption from the tax if they reinvest long term capital gains /net sale consideration into certain specified assets.
Section 194IA, a newly inserted section, mandates a person to deduct Tax at Source (TDS) @ 1% while paying consideration for buying any Immovable property other than rural agricultural land in India to any resident seller/builder.
The said provisions are applicable where the transaction value is more than Rs. 50 lacs. Also, the given provisions have become a concern while buying and paying any amount for underdeveloped plot or under construction apartment/villa etc from Builders. This amendment has taken effect from 1st June, 2013.
Further in case if the builder does not provide Permanent Account Number (PAN) to the buyer, then the buyer has to deduct TDS at higher rate i.e. at the rate of 20%.
Tax Exemption Certificate (TEC) is an order of Assessing Officer issued under provisions of section 195(2), 195(3) or 197 of Income-tax Act 1961.
The rate prescribed for TDS from NRI's income is the maximum rate of tax at which relevant Income is taxable in India. However, in majority of the cases of NRI, the actual tax liability is lower than this. Also, the higher deduction of tax so made is generally not claimed as refund by filing Return of Income. In order to assist in such situations, the Income-tax Act has provided procedure under section 197 whereby a NRI can apply to the Assessing officer to issue specific certificate authorizing the payer of income (who deducts tax at highest prescribed rate) to deduct tax at a lower rate or nil rate as the case may be. Such a certificate would be binding on the payer and he shall deduct tax in accordance with the certificate of the Assessing officer.
Thus whenever a persons actual tax liability as per the provisions of Income-tax Act is lower than the tax deducted at source he may apply for Tax Exemption Certificate.
Permanent Account Number (PAN) is a ten-digit alphanumeric identifier, issued by Income Tax Department to each assessee (e.g. individual, firm, company etc.). Permanent Account Number (PAN) is mandatory for transacting in financial markets in India.
PAN enables the department to link all transactions of the person with the department. A person is required to quote his PAN while executing many transactions in India, for example opening NRO bank account, investment in shares, mutual funds, filing return of income, property deals, vehicle deals, investment in bank FDs.
Although as per rules of Income-tax Act, 1961, PAN is not mandatory for non residents, but there is requirement to furnish to Income Tax Department, registrar and other parties who makes payment to non residents on which payer is liable to deduct tax.
Also, with the introduction of Section 206AA (w.e.f 1st April 2010)
Incase if any person is not holding the PAN Card, the rate at which the Tax be deducted shall be higher of
In view of above it is advisable for Non Residents to obtain PAN.